Understanding SAP Hybris Commerce Persistence Layer: Database tables and their structure

database structure

The purpose of this document is to shed a light on the internal data structures used by SAP Hybris Commerce. I explain system tables and attributes, their purpose and meaning.

You know that SAP Hybris Commerce has a powerful type system built on top of the database layer. It means that you can’t (you are not recommended to) write to the database directly. Direct read is also not recommended. So basically the information about the specific attributes and table names is not used by developers directly.

However, understanding of the internal structure is very useful in troubleshooting and low-level data analysis. For example, direct access to the database may show that your system has a lot of unused items, and it affects the performance. Analyzing the data is also extremely helpful with data integrity issues.

Looking at the underlying data model you will understand the processes better. You will see that SAP Hybris Commerce is not a black box with hidden algorithms and logic under the hood.

Summary Don’t write to the database directly in hybris. Use the hybris data access APIs in all situations when you need to modify things. There are no exceptions. Otherwise, you will definitely have issues with the caching subsystem. The explanations below are important for troubleshooting and to early detect the data issues.

Hybris database internals

Creating tables

Hybris creates tables during the initialization and update processes. It loads old-style ([-.]advanced-deployments.xml) and new style data model definitions (-items.xml).

Hybris generates database schema using HybrisSchemaGenerator.initialize(). The schema is created as a set of SQL files in the temporary directory using Apache DDLUtils SQLBuilder. The generator uses the information loaded from the XML model definitions. Hybris creates three files,

  • DropDDL – with DropTable statements
  • DDL – with CREATE statements (tables and indexes)
  • DML – with INSERT/UPDATE statements

The generated files are executed as a batch using Spring Core JDBC.

There is a table prefix configured for the instance.  By default, it is empty.

Table types

  • Item type tables
  • Localized values tables
  • Generic Audit Tables
  • Property Tables
  • System Tables

Item type tables

The major part of the list of hybris database tables is item type tables. These tables are created automatically from *-items.xml during the system init or update process.

Their names are specified in the ‘deployment’ tag, so the database tables can be of any name chosen by the developer.

Actually, in this process some of other tables are created or updated too. For example, localized values tables are created if you have at least one localized attribute. Generic audit tables are created for all item type tables automatically (the feature is available in 6.6+).

Each item type table has at least the following columns:

  • hjmpTSVersion (bigint). See the section “HJMPTS”. It is incremented each time either the item table, the *props table or the ACLEntry table is changed belonging to a specific item. Example: 3
  • createdTS. Created time (datetime). Example: 2017-07-07 18:22:49.000000
  • modifiedTS. Modified time (datetime). Example: 2017-07-07 18:33:26.000000
  • TypePkString. Reference to a type (*types.pk). See the section PKs. Example: 8796093087826
  • OwnerPkString. Supposed to be a reference to a type, but it is null. Possibly, deprecated
  • PK. Unique identifier (See the section “PKs”) Example: 8796093055058
  • sealed
  • aCLTS Obsolete by now. It used to be for optimistic locking covering the ACLEntry table. This is now solely relying on the hjmpTS column
  • propTS Obsolete by now. It used to be for optimistic locking covering the *PROPS tables. This is now solely relying on the hjmpTS column

Localized values tables

If the table contains localized properties (having values in different languages), these values are stored separately from the main item type table. The table with such data has a suffix “lp”. For example, productslp has the following attributes:

  • p_name
  • p_description
  • p_manufactureretypedescription
  • p_segment
  • p_articlestatus
  • p_summary
  • p_style
  • p_size
  • p_color


Generic Audit tables

Their names are constructed using the item table name, code and a suffix “sn”. For example, for Products, the name of the change history table will be “products1sn” where 1 is a type code of Product and “sn” is a fixed suffix. For the tables having a long name, the name will be truncated. For example, for the table “products4restriction”, the change history table will have a name “products4restri1081sn”.

Not all changes are saved. You need to activate this feature for a particular type. Of course, it will affect the performance, but you will be able to track changes. So the set of participating types depends on particular projects and its requirements and constraints.

It has been activated out-of-the-box for the following types: AbstractContactInfo, Address, B2bunit, BaseSite, Btgsegment,Btgsegmentresult, Cart, CartEntry, City, Comment, Consent, ConsentTemplate, Country, CsAgentGroup, CsTicket, Currency, Customerreview, CxSegment, CxUsertosegment, District, Employee, Language, Order, Orderentry, Partneraddress, Paymentinfo, Paymentmode, Principalgrouprelation, Product, Quote, Quoteentry, Region, SapB2bdocument, SapOrder, Title, Unit, User, Usergroup, UserPasswordChangeAudit.

Read more about Generic Audit feature:

The structure of the change history tables:

  • ID. Unique autoincrement ID.
  • ITEMPK. The Type Instance PK (for products it is a PK of the particular product).
  • ITEMTYPEPK. The Type PK. For Products it is a PK from *types
  • timestamp. Change time stamp.
  • currenttimestamp.  Audit Record Timestamp.
  • changinguser. Who changes the item. It is NOT a PK of the user, it is a string, the user login  (because the user record can be removed)
  • contextAdditional context (JSON)
  • payloadbeforeThe whole business payload of audited type before a persistence operation (JSON).
  • payloadafterThe whole business payload of audited type after a persistence operation (JSON)
  • operationtype0 – deletion, 1 – creation, 2 – modification

A relation table (for many-to-many-relation types) has structure above plus additional columns:

  • sourcePKSource Item PK.
  • targetPKTarget Item PK
  • languagePKLanguage PK

The tables are created for all types. For inactive auditing they will be empty.

For example, if you add a new language, the system will add a following record:

  • timestamp and currenttimestamp will represent the date and time of a change
  • itempk and itemtypepk will contain the 13-digit PKs of the language item added and its type (Language)
  • changinguser – your current backoffice user, such as “admin”
  • operationtype = 1, it means “creation”
  • payloadbefore and payloadafter – see below

Payload before is a JSON:

Screen Shot 2018-05-05 at 8.41.00 PM.png

Payload after contains the same, plus a new item.

Property tables

Property tables are specified for item types in *-items.xml as part of ‘deployment’ tag (‘propertytable’ attribute).

  • addressprops
  • quoteentryprops
  • orderentryprops
  • typesystemprops
  • usergroupprops
  • userprops
  • quoteprops
  • orderprops
  • mediaprops
  • productprops

System tables

  • aclentries,
  • Types:
    • atomictypes,
    • collectiontypes,
    • composedtypes,
    • maptypes,
  • attributedescriptors,
  • configitems,
  • enumerationvalues,
  • genericitems,
  • gentestitems,
  • junit_numberseries,
  • links,
  • metainformations,
  • numberseries,
  • orderdiscrels,
  • pgrels,
  • props,
  • searchrestrictions
  • ydeployments
  • tasks_aux_queue
  • tasks_aux_scheduler
  • tasks_aux_workers
  • testitem

Props tables

Props tables are a little bit special, as all attributes that you specify in the items.xml file with the modifier dontOptimize="true" will go there, getting their values stored as blob. There is not much information about it, here in the reference is mentioned (https://wiki.hybris.com/display/release5/items.xml+Element+Reference#items.xmlElementReference-ComplexType:modifiersType).

Basically if you sent the dontOptimize modifier the object will be stored in this props table, making it more expensive to search by, but releasing the original object of what is expected to be a heavy column in the database.

Typically you would want to add attributes to this table when they are too big and you would never want to search by this attribute, for instance the full hmc xml text, or the comments that could be added to the items.

Anyway, it is not a very good practice to store attributes in this table, as there are cases where it can grow way too much and have a very bad impact on performance, it is more recommended to specify the type of the database you are going to be working on, as explained here.

  • ‘addressprops’
  • ‘mediaprops’
  • ‘orderentryprops’
  • ‘orderprops’
  • ‘productprops’
  • ‘props’
  • ‘quoteentryprops’
  • ‘quoteprops’
  • ‘typesystemprops’
  • ‘usergroupprops’
  • ‘userprops’

ACL Entries (Table «aclentries»)

Purpose: Access Control Lists (Permission-User-Item).

Defined by core-advanced-deployment.xml

Used by JALO AccessManager. The User/Object permissions are stored here.

  • IDVersion. See the section “HJMPTS”.
  • ITEMPKReference to UserRight Model.
  • negativeStands for negative permissions.
  • principalPKReference to Principal Model.
  • itemPKReference to Item Model.

Type System records


The type system is represented by the following set of tables:

  • AtomicTypes
  • ComposedTypes
  • MapTypes
  • CollectionTypes
  • EnumerationValues
  • AttributeDescriptors
  • PropsMap
  • yDeployments
  • Country

Common attributes

This set of attributes is used in the following tables:

  • Atomictypes
  • Collectiontypes
  • Commenttypes
  • Composedtypes
  • MapTypes

Attributes and their meaning:

  • hjmpTSVersion (bigint). See the section “HJMPTS”. It is incremented each time either the item table, the *props table or the ACLEntry table is changed belonging to a specific item. Example: 3
  • createdTS. Created time (datetime). Example: 2017-07-07 18:22:49.000000
  • modifiedTS. Modified time (datetime). Example: 2017-07-07 18:33:26.000000
  • TypePkString. Reference to a type (*types.pk). See the section PKs. Example: 8796093087826
  • OwnerPkString. Supposed to be a reference to a type, but it is null. Possibly, deprecated
  • PK. Unique identifier (See the section “PKs”) Example: 8796093055058
  • p_extensionname. Name of the extension (string). Example: “core” or “cockpit”
  • p_autocreate . Create a database table/model or not (flag). Example: 1
  • p_generate. Generate Jalo classes for the model or not (flag). Example: 0
  • internalCode. String representation of the Item name.Examples: “Item”, “ComposedType”, “Media”, “UserRight” (core-advanced-deployment.xml)
  • p_defaultvalue Default value. Examples: 0.
  • aCLTS Obsolete by now. It used to be for optimistic locking covering the ACLEntry table. This is now solely relying on the hjmpTS column
  • propTS Obsolete by now. It used to be for optimistic locking covering the *PROPS tables. This is now solely relying on the hjmpTS column

Atomic Types (Table «Atomictypes»)

  • All common attributes+
  • InheritancePathString.  Comma-separated list of PKs which are parent to the item. Example: “,8796093055058,8796094431314,8796094464082,”
  • JavaClassName.  Java Class Name. Example: “de.hybris.platform.jalo.media.MediaContainer” (core-advanced-deployment.xml)
  • SuperTypePK. Supertype PK. Example: 8796094496850
  • InternalCodeLowerCase Example: “java.lang.Long” (core-advanced-deployment.xml)

The following atomic types are created by default with the hybris accelerator:


Collection Types (Table «collectiontypes»)

  • All common attributes +  
  • ElementTypePK. Element type PK. Example: 8796094496850 (core-advanced-deployment.xml)
  • typeOfCollection. Type of collection. 0=Collection, 1=Set, 2=List. Example: 1 (core-advanced-deployment.xml)
  • InternalCodeLowerCaseExample: “user2owneurope1discountsowneurope1discountscoll” (core-advanced-deployment.xml)

There are about 500 collection types in SAP hybris Accelerator.

Composed Types (Table «composedtypes»)

  • All common attributes+
  • inheritancePathStringComma-separated list of PKs which is a parent to the item. Example: “,8796093055058,8796094431314,8796094464082,” (core-advanced-deployment.xml)
  • jaloClassName Example: “de.hybris.platform.jalo.Item” (core-advanced-deployment.xml)
  • itemJNDIName. Example: “de.hybris.platform.persistence.Item” (core-advanced-deployment.xml)
  • singleton. If ‘true’, type will be evaluated with that allowing only one instance per system. (core-advanced-deployment.xml)
  • p_jaloonly. DEPRECATED. If ‘true’, the item will only exists in the jalo layer and isn’t backed by an entity bean. Default is ‘false’.
  • p_dynamic. “1″ for dynamic attributes.
  • SuperTypePK. Super type PK (core-advanced-deployment.xml)
  • p_legacypersistence.       If true, the system uses Jalo strategy for managing ACLs. Otherwise, it uses Service Layer Direct (SLD) strategy.
  • p_systemtype.   1″ for system types or null
  • p_catalogitemtype. “1” for catalog item types or null
  • p_catalogversionattributequali name of the attribute that is treated as catalog Version OR null. For the most items-xml catalog-aware defined types the value is catalogVersion. “systemVersion” is also used, for classification catalogs.
  • p_uniquekeyattributequalifier.   Comma-separated list of unique attributes of the type
  • internalCodeLowerCase. lowercase representation of internalCode
  • removable.          1″ if removable, “0” is not removable. (core-advanced-deployment.xml)
  • propertyTableStatus. Assumingly, it is a leftover from the time when SAP hybris had one more type item related table, holding unlocalized properties. This obviously wasn’t really needed since those properties can live inside the main item table (as they do today). This field was telling which of the two modes were used. In the current versions, it is always “1”. (core-advanced-deployment.xml)
  • itemTypeCode. A type code (a number) associated with the composed type (core-advanced-deployment.xml)
  • p_comparationattribute.  Used only for enumeration types; 0 for sorted.
  • p_localized . Used only for relation types. 1 for localized relations (see the localized attribute of relation type declaration). A localized n-m relation can have a link between two items for each language.
  • p_sourceattribute.  Used only for relation types. Source attribute for the relations.
  • p_targetattribute. Used only for relation types. Target attribute for the relations.
  • p_sourcetype. Used  only for relation types. Source type for the relations.
  • p_targettype. Used  only for relation types. Target type for the relations.
  • p_sourcenavigable. Used only for relation types. Is the relation navigable from this side. Can only be disabled for one side of many to many relation.
  • p_targetnavigableThe same as p_sourcenavigable, but for the target object.
  • p_orderingattribute. Used  only for relation types. reflects the “ordering” attribute of the relation tag of items.xml. Contains PK of the attribute used for ordering (*pos).
  • p_localizationattribute Unknown for me (always null after init for all types)
  • p_previewdisabled.   Added by cms2-items.xml for CMSPageType that uses composedtype

There are about 1100 composed types in SAP Hybris Accelerator, including:

  • ~190 core item types
  • about 318 relations
  • about 168 enums

Map Types (Table «maptypes»)

  • All common attributes +
  • ArgumentTypePK. PK of the Argument type (core-advanced-deployment.xml)
  • ReturnTypePK.  Return type PK (core-advanced-deployment.xml)
  • InternalCodeLowerCaseInternal code lowercased (core-advanced-deployment.xml)
Localized Properties (Tables «maptypeslp», «composedtypeslp», «atomictypeslp», «collectiontypeslp»)
These tables contain the information about the item types properties in different languages.
  • ITEMPK. PK of the attribute
  • ITEMTYPEPKPK of the item type
  • LANGPKPK of the language
  • p_nameLocalized name
  • p_descriptionLocalized description

Attribute Descriptors (Table «attributedescriptors»)

Attribute descriptors contain the information about the type attributes.

  • All common without Internal Code
  • qualifierInternal. Name of the attribute (from the xml)
  • attributeTypePK. PK of the attribute type. Example: 8796095053906 (UserDiscountGroup)
  • columnName. Name of the field in the database. Example: “p_europe1pricefactory_udg”
  • p_defaultvaluedefinitionstringExamples: “Boolean.FALSE”, “em(). getEnumerationValue( “CmsApprovalStatus”, “check”)”
  • enclosingTypePK. PK of the type this attribute belongs to customerList
  • persistenceQualifierInternal. The cmp (container managed persistence) value for persistence type; it was deprecated back in 4.4 and it only remains for internal development use.
  • persistenceTypePK. Atomic Type used for storing data. For example: java.util.Date
  • p_attributehandlerName of attribute handler, if defined. For example, principalGroupDisplayNameLocalizedAttributeHandler.
  • selectionDescriptorPK. Used mainly for addresses. For example, Address.contactAddress has selectionDescriptorPK? = AddressCollection.contactAddresses
  • p_unique“1” if unique
  • p_hiddenforui. “1” if the attribute should be hidden from UI. Example: OrgUnit.path Boolean.TRUE
  • p_readOnlyForUI. Example: Product.untypedFeatures Boolean.TRUE
  • p_dontCopy. Example: ProductFeature.stringValue Boolean.TRUE
  • qualifierLowerCaseInternal. Lowercase version of Qualifier
  • isHidden. “1” if the attribute is hidden. For example, attributes for storing a relative position in ordered lists are hidden
  • isProperty. “1” if the attribute is property. Attributes with isProperty = 0 are not exposed as item type properties (they are considered as system properties, such as modified time or savedValues)
  • superAttributeDescriptorPK. Example: CustomerList.name -> Principal.name because CustomerList  extends UserGroup, UserGroup extends PrincipalGroup, PrincipalGroup extends Principal.
  • inheritancePathString. Comma-separated list of parent types Example: “,8796093841490, 8796094988370, 8796095021138, 8796095479890,”
  • p_externalqualifier. External qualifier is used to get or set via de.hybris.platform.util.Config. Used only by LDAP module and HMC. Used for Config Attribute Descriptors.  Example:   “ldap.jndi.connection.timeout”
  • p_storeindatabase. Used for Config Attribute Descriptors. Used only by LDAP module and HMC. Example:   Boolean.TRUE
  • p_needrestart. Used only by LDAP module and HMC. Example:   Boolean.TRUE
  • p_param. Defines if the attribute is either a parameter (param=true) or if it describes a result row attribute (param=false). Example:  Boolean.FALSE Deprecated.
  • p_position. Defines the position of the attribute descriptor. Example: Integer.valueOf (2) Deprecated.
  • p_defaultvalueexpression. Contains the expression for the default value. Example: de.hybris.platform.jalo.JaloSession.getCurrentSession().getUser()
  • p_issource. “1” if it is a source field in the relation
  • p_ordered. “1” for ordered relations
  • p_relationname. Name of the relation (for relations)
  • p_relationtype. PK of the relation type (for relations)

There is also a table for localized properties:

  • AttributeDescriptorsLP

Other tables

Common attributes

All objects below contain a fixed set of attributes, namely:

  • PK. A unique key
  • hjmpTSVersion (bigint). See the section “HJMPTS” Example: 3
  • createdTS. Created time (datetime). Example: 2017-07-07 18:22:49.000000
  • modifiedTS. Modified time (datetime). Example: 2017-07-07 18:33:26.000000
  • aCLTS.
  • TypePkString. Reference to a type (*types.pk). See the section PKs. Example: 8796093087826
  • OwnerPkString. PK of the owner
  • propTS.

Config Items (Table «configitems»)

  • (all the common attributes above)

Enumeration Values (Table «enumerationvalues»)

  • (all the common attributes above)
  • code. An enum value (string). Example: “CANCELLING”
  • codeLowerCase. The code in lowercase. Example: “cancelling”
  • sequenceNumber. A sequence number of the value in enum. Example: 3
  • p_extensionname. Extension name. Example: basecommerce
  • p_icon. Media Item PK.
  • editable. “1” for the editable item.


This table contains the objects of the GenericItem type.

  • PK. Unique identifier (See the section “PKs”) Example: 8796093055075
  • aCLTS.
  • propTS.
  • p_code.

The following attributes are defined by workflow-items.xml (WorkflowActionTemplateDecisionsTemplateRelation and WorkflowActionDecisionsRelation )

  • p_actiontemplate
  • p_action.

The following attributes are defined by AbstractAdvancedSavedQuerySearchParameter and TypedAdvancedSavedQuerySearchParameter  definition (advancedsavedquery-items.xml):

  • p_comparator.
  • p_emptyhandling.
  • p_valuetype.
  • p_searchparametername.
  • p_joinalias.
  • p_lower.p_wherepart.
  • p_typedsearchparameter.
  • p_enclosingtype`

There is also a table for localized properties:

  • GenericItemLP


This table contains the instances of GenericTestItem used in the test classes.

  • hjmpTSVersion (bigint). See the section “HJMPTS” Example: 3
  • createdTS. Created time (datetime). Example: 2017-07-07 18:22:49.000000
  • modifiedTS. Modified time (datetime). Example: 2017-07-07 18:33:26.000000
  • TypePkString. Reference to a type (*types.pk). See the section PKs. Example: 8796093087826
  • OwnerPkString.
  • PK. Unique identifier (See the section “PKs”) Example: 8796093055075
  • aCLTS.
  • propTS.


NumberSeries is used for JUnit to test a unique PK pool. The structure is the same as in NumberSeries, see below.


This table is used for the objects of the ExtensibleItem type.

This table is used by LinkManager for non-root relations.

  • hjmpTS.
  • createdTS.
  • modifiedTS.
  • TypePkString.
  • OwnerPkString.
  • PK.
  • languagepk.
  • Qualifier.
  • SourcePK.
  • TargetPK.
  • SequenceNumber.
  • RSequenceNumber.
  • aCLTS.
  • propTS.


See the information about props table above.

  • hjmpTS.
  • NAME.
  • TYPE1.
  • VALUE1 .


Hybris saves the tenant information here.

  • hjmpTS.
  • PK.
  • createdTS.
  • modifiedTS.
  • aCLTS.
  • TypePkString.
  • OwnerPkString.
  • propTS.
  • SystemPK.
  • SystemName.
  • isInitialized. This fields says if the system initialized or not
  • LicenceID.
  • LicenceName.
  • LicenceEdition.
  • AdminFactor.
  • LicenceExpiration.
  • LicenceSignature.


This table is used by NumberSeries API for generating unique keys. From the service layer, it is used by PersistentKeyGenerator. For example, it is used for orders, comments, media, cronjobs, processes, workflows and workflow actions. See the class NumberSeries for the details. It is used by various components to generate unique identifiers.

  • hjmpTS
  • serieskeythe key. “pk_” is used for generating PKs of the objects.
  • seriestypeThere are two types, alphanumeric (0) and numeric (1).
  • currentValueCurrent value. The unique ids are generated in blocks of the specified size, currentvalue contains the last id of the generated sequence.
  • templateTemplate defines the key format. ‘@’ is used to inject PK, $ is used to inject a numeric value of the key. .

pgrels and orderdiscrels

pgrels  is used for the objects of the PrincipalGroupRelation type (extends Link).

ordersiscrels is used for the objects of the OrderDiscountRelation type (extends Link).

Both have the following structure:

  • hjmpTS 
  • createdTS
  • modifiedTS
  • ​TypePkString
  • OwnerPkString
  • PK
  • LanguagePk
  • Qualifier
  • SourcePK
  • TargetPK
  • SequenceNumber
  • RSequenceNumber
  • aCLTS
  • propTS

As far as I know OrderDiscountRelation is not used anymore. It was replaced by DiscountModel.


This table is used for the objects of the SearchRestrictions type (extends Link).

  • hjmpTS
  • createdTS
  • modifiedTS
  • TypePkString
  • OwnerPkString
  • PK
  • p_extensionname
  • p_autocreate
  • p_generate
  • p_code
  • p_active
  • principal
  • query
  • RestrictedType
  • aCLTS
  • propTS

There is also a table for localized properties:

  • SearchRestrictionLP


TestItem is used in unit tests. There are fields of different types.

  • hjmpTS
  • createdTS
  • modifiedTS
  • TypePkString
  • OwnerPkString
  • PK
  • fieldA
  • fieldB
  • fieldBoolean
  • fieldByte
  • fieldCharacter
  • fieldDate
  • fieldDouble
  • fieldFloat
  • fieldInteger
  • fieldLong
  • fieldPrimitiveBoolean
  • fieldPrimitiveByte
  • fieldPrimitiveChar
  • fieldPrimitiveDouble
  • fieldPrimitiveFloat
  • fieldPrimitiveInteger
  • fieldPrimitiveLong
  • fieldPrimitiveShort
  • fieldSerializable
  • fieldString
  • fieldLongString
  • p_testproperty0
  • aCLTS
  • propTS
  • fieldBigDecimal
  • p_testproperty1
  • p_foo
  • p_bar
  • p_xxx
  • p_itemtypetwo
  • p_itemstypetwo


This table contains the information about type deployments: what table corresponds to what type and what configuration options should be taken into account.

  • hjmpTS
  • Typecode
  • TableName
  • PropsTableName
  • Name
  • PackageName
  • SuperName
  • ExtensionName
  • Modifiers
  • TypeSystemName

Special attributes


This attribute contains a number which is used for concurrent writes management. There are some extra information relevant to the topic that you may find useful:

It’s meant to support optimistic locking in the same way as a persistence layer like Hibernate does with a @Version annotation.

Basically when you select a row with from the database and that returns you the current version. When the row is updated then the version column is incremented. When you update the row you use a WHERE clause on the query to match the version that you selected. If the update doesn’t modify any rows then you know something else has updated the row (and version) in the meantime.

hjmp.throw.concurrent.modification.exceptions(default false) is config parameter which either enables or disables checking that upon update an item row must have the same version that has been read when fetching the HJMP entity object.

This means setting a hjmp.throw.concurrent.modification.exceptions parameter to true in properties activates optimistic locking and of course increasing the risk of seeing optimistic concurrency exceptions such as HJMPException(PK was modified concurrently – expected version … ), which will force a transaction rollback

P.S: If you don’t enable optimistic locking, only the dirty attributes will be written and the final result will be a merge.” (source)


  1. Kiran Kumar Vemula · · Reply

    Excellent. Good work.


  2. Yury Bich · · Reply

    “Read more about Generic Audit feature” link is broken.

    Liked by 1 person

  3. Devraj Kumar · · Reply

    Very Very useful information. Thanks

    Liked by 1 person

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